Compiled by Dr. Kavita Ugale, MD – Ayurveda
Basti is one of the five procedures of panchakarma in Ayurveda. It is the prime treatment in shodhana is consider as one of the most important treatment for many disease . classically , it is advocated in the disease of Vata. It is mainly of two type vizasthapanabasti or niruhabasti were decoction is a major part of Basti and anuvasanbasti or snehabasti where oil is a major part of basti. The term basti comes from the usage of the animal urinary bladder for the administration of bastidravya ( the oil or decoction). According to classical text basti administration is done with the help of animal bladder ( bastiputak) it was possible and justified in the earlier day however it is not feasible and practically possible today. Nowadays, Basti administration is often done using enema- can or douche set and specially prepared metal /wooden nozzle/catheter (bastinetra), the whole assembly is called bastiyantra.
Types of Basti
– There are many types of basti mention in classic according to medication, function, etc some are as follows:-
As mention above it is the type in which tail or Sneha (oil) is used in pure vataj disorder. It is totally antagonistic to the qualities of vata. The snigdhata(unctuousness), guruta (heaviness), ushnata(heat) this qualities of sneha are antagonistic to the ruksha (dry), laghu(lightness), and sheeta(cold) qualities of vata.After getting rid of morbid vayuaanuvasanbasti restores health.
As mention above it is basti in which a major part is kashayam (decoction) is administered. Niruha word itself means to eliminate since this basti eliminate (expel) the morbid doshas from the body. By expelling the morbidity, Basti establishes unparalleled health and immunity in all the cells in the body.
✔ Uttar basti
It is a type of basti in which medicated oil or ghrut (ghee ) is administered through urethra in men and through vagina in women. It is mostly indicated in urinary tract disease, infertility etc
It is bastiin which oil is administered in small quantity that is in 60ml it is type of basti which can be given daily in any season at any age for proper functioning of vata.
✔ Karma basti
It is basti in which oil and decoction is use alternatively in number of total 30 days basti is called karma basti
✔ Kala basti
It is basti in which total 15 days of basti is administer (10 oils +5 decoction )
It is basti in which total 8 days basti is administer (5 oil+ 3 decoction )
It is basti used for nutrition of whole body ,increses the strength of body.
It is basti in which medicine is act as scrapping of fat in the body mostly used in obesity , hyperlipidemia etc
Indication of basti treatment:
Basti is said to be the best treatment for vatavyadhis (disease occurring due to vitiation of vatadoshas )
✔ Paraplegia, Hemiplegi , cervical spondylitis, lumbar spondylitis , Ankolysingspondilitis, sciatica, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, gout etc
✔ The digestive disorder, Irritable bowel syndrome, colitis, constipation, distention of abdomen anorexia, piles, etc
✔ Impotency, infertility, PCOS, thyroid disorders, endocrine diseases, etc Above and many more disorders in which basti act as an effective treatment.
Mode of action of basti –
Basti medicine administered into the Pakwashay (colon) by virtue (virya and prabhav ) of medicine gets absorbed and remove all the morbidity and impurities located at all the places of body and expel them from the system. Even modern studies have shown the action of Basti beyond the level of the colon (large intestine ). According to studies, the enema reaches the level of the stomach, duodenum, and ileum (part of the small intestine) were in the active principle of the enema medicine are absorbed and made use of Sneha or medicated lipids (oil and ghee) have annupravanaguna (deep penetrating qualities or crossing the barrier) reaches their target tissues and organ.
In short Basti treatment serves the purpose of shodhana ( cleansing), shaman ( palliation), Lekhana (scraping ) , Bruhanam ( nourishing ), Vajikaran (Aphrodisiac ), VayaSthapana ( life span enhances longevity promoting ).